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Oracle's rowid

select col_1, col_2, rowid from some_table

A rowid identifies a row in a table

A rowid is a pseudo column (like versions_xid), that uniquely identifies a row within a table, but not within a database. It is possible for two rows of two different tables stored in the same cluster to have the same rowid.

Using dbms_rowid

In order to find the datafile, block number and slot number, dbms_rowid can be used:
set serveroutput on size 1000000 format wrapped

create table rowid_test (
  id      number,
  dummy1  varchar2(4000),
  dummy2  varchar2(4000),
  dummy3  varchar2(4000),
  dummy4  varchar2(4000)
);

begin

  for i in 1 .. 400 loop
    insert into rowid_test values(i, 
      lpad('1', i, '1'),
      lpad('2', i, '2'),
      lpad('3', i, '3'),
      lpad('4', i, '4'));
  end loop;
  
  -- delete but every 20th record
  delete from rowid_test where mod(id,20) <> 0;
end;
/


declare
  r           rowid;
  i           number := 1;
  v_file_name dba_data_files.file_name%type;
begin

  for p in (
    select rowid 
      from rowid_test
    ) loop

     select file_name
     into v_file_name
     from dba_data_files
     where file_id = dbms_rowid.rowid_to_absolute_fno(p.rowid, user, 'ROWID_TEST');


     dbms_output.put_line('row no    : ' || i          );
     dbms_output.put_line('  file    : ' || v_file_name);
     dbms_output.put_line('  block no: ' || dbms_rowid.rowid_block_number(p.rowid));
     dbms_output.put_line('  slot no : ' || dbms_rowid.rowid_row_number(p.rowid));
     dbms_output.put_line('');

    i := i+1;
  end loop;
end;
/

drop table rowid_test;
row no    : 1
  file    : E:\ORACLEXE\ORADATA\XE\USERS.DBF
  block no: 4924
  slot no : 3

row no    : 2
  file    : E:\ORACLEXE\ORADATA\XE\USERS.DBF
  block no: 4925
  slot no : 19

row no    : 3
  file    : E:\ORACLEXE\ORADATA\XE\USERS.DBF
  block no: 4925
  slot no : 39

  [....]

Bigfile rowids

A bigfile tablespace can only have on datafile associated with it, therefor, the three bytes that identified the datafile can now additionally be used to address db blocks.

'Changing' rowids

Although a rowid uniquely identifies a row in a table, it might change its value if the underlying table is an index organized table or a partitioned table.
Also, rowids change if a table is exported and imported using EXP/IMP.
This implies that rowids should not be stored away for later re-use as the corresponding row then might either not exist or contain completely different data.

Misc

Getting the block number (within a segment from a rowid:
select dbms_rowid.rowid_block_number(rowid) from t where ....

Thanks

Thanks to Michael Hillgruber who notified me of an error on this page.