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date (datatype in Oracle)
A date can store a point in time to the precision of one second. If more precision is required, a timestamp datatype is needed.
Valid dates are from January first 4712 BC through December 31st 9999.
Converting to a string
When converted to a string (for example in SQL*Plus), Oracle uses the nls_date_format setting to determine how the string should look like.
A date always needs seven bytes: two to store the year, one for the month, one for the day, one for the hour, one for the minute and one for the second.