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Environment variables for Oracle


NLS_LANG has the following format: LANGUAGE_TERRITORY.CHARACTERSET. See also nls_language.
LANGUAGE controls the language of messages, as well as the day and month names. It also influences the sort behavior. A LANGUAGE has a default TERRITORY and CHARACTERSET assigned with it, so it is possible to only assign a LANGUAGE to NLS_LANG.
TERRITORY controls the default date format, the decimal character and group seperator.



The environment variable points to teh oracle_home directory.
Under Windows, usually the ORACLE_HOME is pointed at through the registry.


Name of the SID.


This variable should point to the directory in which the tnsnames.ora file is located.


  • The variable's value must be set in uppercase on Unix systems.
  • If the variable is not set, the default location is searched.
  • If the directory cannot be read, an ORA-12705 is raised.