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shutdown [SQL*Plus]

shutdown
shutdown abort
shutdown immediate
shutdown normal
shutdown transactional
shutdown transactional local
Shutting down an instance (and closing the database that is mounted on the instance) takes three steps:
  1. Close the database.
  2. Dismount the database.
  3. Shut down the instance of the Oracle server.
Oracle automatically performs all three steps when an instance is shut down. See also the states of an instance.
In order to shutdown an instance, one needs to be connected as sysdba or as sysoper.
An instance is started with startup.

Different types of shutdown

shutdown abort

When a database is started after a shutdown abort, Oracle peforms crash recovery.
If there is a logoff trigger, it won't be executed.

shutdown immediate

yet to be finished :)
If there is a logoff trigger, it won't be executed.

shutdown normal

shutdown normal is equivalent to shutdown

shutdown transactional

yet to be finished :)

Controling the shutdown behaviour on Windows

On Windows, it can be specified how the instance is shut down when the service is stopped with the registry value ORA_%ORACLE_SID%_SHUTDOWN.

Logging

Oracle records shutdowns of the instance in the alert.log file.

Links

See also startup.