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startup [SQL*Plus]

startup nomount 
startup mount 
startup restrict 
startup open recover 

startup pfile = /path/to/init.ora
startup starts (creates) an Oracle instance. While the instance is created, Oracle reads init.ora or an spfile.
In order to startup an instance, one needs to be connected as sysdba or as sysoper.
An instance is terminated with shutdown.


startup nomount

Only the instance is started. That is the SGA is allocated and the background processes are started.
Neither controlfiles are mounted nor database opened.

startup mount

Instance is started and controlfiles mounted, but database not opened.


Instance is started and controlfiles mounted and database opened.

startup restrict

startup restrict is similar to startup, however, Oracle then allows only users with restricted privileges to access the database.


The pfile=init.ora indicates the location and name of the init.ora file that the instance reads when it is started. This method is used when the init.ora file is to be taken from a non default location or has a non default name.


Oracle records startups of the instance in the alert.log file.


See also startup.
ORA-01031 when starting an instance.